- NIH Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University, 1973-75
- Ph.D. Wesleyan University
- B.S. Yale University
Structure function relationships in rhodopsin and the cone pigments. Use of bacteriorhodopsin and proteorhodopsin in artificial retinas, holographic associative memories, photovoltaic solar energy converters, high-speed sensors and three-dimensional memories. Use of directed evolution to optimize proteins for device applications. Large-scale molecular orbital theory of protein structure and function.